Este reporte fue elaborado por Oswaldo Ruiz-Chiriboga.
En la Revista Communication Law and Policy (Vol 18, No. 4, 2013, pp. 395-423), se publicó un artículo de Edward Carter titulado “Actual Malice in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights”. Este es el rsumen:
“The Inter-American Court of Human Rights decided four cases in recent years that represent a positive step for freedom of expression in nations that belong to the Organization of American States. In 2004 and again in 2008, the court stopped short of adopting a standard that would require proof of actual malice in criminal defamation cases brought by public officials. In 2009, however, the court seemed to adopt the actual malice rule without calling it that. The court's progress toward actual malice is chronicled in this article. The article concludes that the court's decision not to explicitly use the phrase “actual malice” may be a positive development for freedom of expression in the Americas.”